Evaluation of Susceptibility-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and 4d-time-resolved Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

Titre officiel

Evaluation of Susceptibility-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and 4d-time-resolved Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

Sommaire:

Les malformations artérioveineuses (MAV) cérébrales sont des communications anormales entre les artères et les veines cérébrales, attribuables à un enchevêtrement d’artères anormales (foyer). Les MAV cérébrales, qui peuvent être asymptomatiques ou symptomatiques, s’accompagnent d’une hémorragie aiguë ou de symptômes neurologiques. Les MAV cérébrales n’ayant pas saigné sont associés à un risque annuel d’hémorragie intracrânienne d’environ 4 % (Ondra et al.). La prise en charge multidisciplinaire comprend la participation de neurochirurgiens, de neuroradiologistes interventionnels, de radiologistes, de neurologues et de membres du personnel paramédical. Les patients peuvent être traités par une neurochirurgie ouverte, une embolisation endovasculaire, une radiothérapie ou toute association de ces traitements. L’objectif du traitement est d’éliminer les MAV cérébrales tout en préservant un débit normal vers les artères normales avoisinantes. Cela nécessite l’oblitération des shunts de sang passant par les artères touchées par une MAV et le réacheminement du sang vers les veines au moyen de divers traitements. Le schéma thérapeutique est personnalisé en fonction de l’évolution naturelle, de l’angioarchitecture, du siège, du risque lié au(x) traitement(s) et des souhaits des patients.

Description de l'essai

Primary Outcome:

  • SWAN and TRMRA with catheter angiography will be measured to determine if accuracy of brain MRI for follow-up of treated brain AVM can be improved
Why is MRI important in the management of brain AVMs i.e. over conventional catheter angiography? The "gold standard" for evaluation of brain AVMs is catheter angiography. However, the procedure is invasive, involves ionizing radiation, exposure to contrast media with potential for nephrotoxicity or allergy and carries a 1% risk of morbidity including stroke. In contrast, MRI is a non-invasive method to evaluate brain AVMs and has the added advantage over catheter angiography of depicting the anatomical localization of the AVM within the brain tissue. However, currently MRI is limited by lack of ability to demonstrate shunting of blood through the AVM, an important indicator that the brain AVM is still present after treatment.

Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a promising new MRI technology which indirectly evaluates the amount of oxygen within blood vessels. Small case series exploring the utility of SWI in brain AVMs has been reported suggesting the venous drainage of brain AVMs is often abnormally hyperintense because of abnormal shunting of oxygenated blood from AVM arteries to the draining vein(Bharathi D et al.). Typically in normal tissues, oxygenated blood on SWI images is hyperintense while deoxygenated blood in normal veins is hypointense. Developmental venous anomalies demonstrating enlarged draining veins are normal variants that must be distinguished from true AVMs . However, this capability has not been prospectively evaluated in a systematic fashion.

Our current standard for contrast-enhanced evaluation of brain AVMs is to perform a contrast-enhanced MRA (CEMRA) followed by a post-contrast T1 volumetric whole brain sequence. The CEMRA allows depiction of contrast at its maximal intensity passing through the brain on its first pass. The post contrast T1 scan only demonstrates static contrast pooling within the brain AVM. However, neither CEMRA nor the post contrast scan provides information about the speed at which contrast is moving through a brain AVM ie. shunting. Evaluation of the temporal passage of contrast brain AVM would require a dynamic time-resolved technique with adequate temporal resolution to distinguish early vs late vs no shunting within a brain AVM.

What is the current technology for MRI of brain AVMs? Susceptibility-weighted angiography (SWAN) imaging on the GE 3 T has been attempted but the preliminary evidence suggest that the images are of low resolution and difficult to interpret. In addition, our literature review found a paucity of studies evaluating staged treatment of brain AVMs with SWAN imaging. In our institution, brain AVMs may have staged treatment consistent of endovascular embolization and/or radiosurgery. After each treatment patients are followed with serial imaging MRI and Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA). This provides an important opportunity to investigate the utility of non-invasive MRI to detect residual AVM after treatment.

Thus, there is a significant opportunity to evaluate the value of SWAN and Time Resolved Magnetic Resonance Angiography (TRMRA) assessment of progressive obliteration of the AVM nidus. Specifically, this is attractive for brain AVMs that are treated with radiosurgery as MRI and DSA are required for clinical grounds for treatment planning purposes.

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